Сентябрь 5th, 2010

Исландская рукопись Nks. 1878 a, 4to.

ИСЛАНДСКАЯ РУКОПИСЬ Nks. 1878 a, 4to.

Это список трактата Бьёрна Йоунс-сона из Скардс-ау «Один маленький сборник о рунах»(Samtak um rúnir), который предположительно скомпилировал известный исл. ведун, пастор Торстейн Бьёрнс-сон (Þorsteinn Björnsson) из Ут-скалир (Útskalir). Чрезвычайно интересны четыре вставки в вышеупомянутый трактат Бьёрна из Скардс-ау, вероятно, сделанные ведуном Торстейном (ср. книгу «Графическая магия исландцев» (2009): с. 73):

1) В кратком предисловии-пояснении к трактату утверждается, что речь ниже пойдет о лат. Runomagia, т. е. исл. Rúnalistinn, датск. Rúndmálenn.

2) Приводится невероятно любопытный вариант исл. «Песни о рунах» (rúnakvæði). Как утверждает пастор Торстейн сей вариант «Песни о рунах» составил известный чародей Йоун Йоунс-сон со Святого озера (Jón Jónsson í Helgavatni), преследуемый при жизни за общение с эльфами. (Подробней о Йоуне со Святого Озера см. книги Л. Кораблева «Книга историй об эльфах» (2008), «Рунические заговоры и апокрифические молитвы исландцев» (2003), «Графическая магия исландцев» (2009) и статью «Álfaöldin» на этом сайте; также статью Jón Samsonarson “fjandafæla Gísla Jónssonar lærða í Melrakkadal” (1979): с. 42-43& работы Паудля Э. Оуласона и Эйнара Г. Пьетурссона.) Вот исл. рукописный текст самой «Поэмы о рунах»:

Ar. Gumaglede, gott Sumar. algróinn Akur. Himna Skeinkíng. Jardargrodi. gródur Vallna. allur gróde. Fugla fögnudur. Glede þioda. Hlutur Ánaudþræls. Salasender. Hulinn-harmur.

Biarkan. Lítid lim. laufgadur vidur. lundur fagur. frioga trianna. liómandi Lundur. Skógalim. Blaudin vidur. Manna ávöxtur. Pryde vidar. klædi Eika. Eika-úll. Giöf greipa. Ord………

Stúnginn tyr. Ulfofóstre sár. Hlyre úlfs skotinn. drepinn madur. braudur brotinn. Freysbarmi i naudum. Sæfdur Þórsbrodir. Freyshlyri meiddur.

Stúnginn Ýs. Þiarkadur ýs. vök silúnga. Sifiardún geinginn. jft gliáliós. Snákasótt trodinn. Kómu-vöndur. uppborne kiærleike. Styrkur og neid. Svarrasótt trodinn. Fiska uppdráttur. Opnadur vatnsfelldur. Vatnsbólga. Hverfa hvers. Hnettsla. Þil vatna reint. *Siohliód.

Fe. – Frændarógur. Fofnisbed. Fyrdagaman. Mannarógur. Ahýggia manns. Øfund. Hliódlæti mans. *Tiuiatala. metordmanna. áer vetrar.

Stúnginn kaun. Kyle knúd. Sár Hilldar. Madur sár. *Grædisstofn stirdur. Handar mein sært. Hilldarhögg. Víjg. Hesta-högg. Jöl munns i naudum. Mein grafid. Hneoker. Hrým. Fretter fúlar.

Hagl. Kalldakorn. krafadrífa. Skíasilfur. Skyaþruma. Hlyrners syndur. *Hlyrnes-þruma. Himnagriót. Himnamalt. Spíta. Dymmudraf.

Is. – Árbörkur. unnar þekia. Feigsfar. Straumsfiöl. Vatnadún. Hrym-sæng-vatna.

Kaun. Barnaböl. Bardage. Holldfúahús. stórt fall. Fuglafár. Sess. Fákiæti fyrda. Fakiæti Lida. Smámannatión. Högnadottir. Hilldarstod. Hilldarhögg

Laugur. Vellandi unnur. Vídur ketill. Vatn heitt. Landabellti. Kalk dýra. Klute. landaband. Elldsgagn vidt. Sveita-hríngur. Fiskafolld. Ran. Humarfrón. Flestra-fiska-völlur. Durnisdráttur. Heitur brunnur. Færa.

Madur. Mannsgaman.Moldarauke. Skipa skreitir. Mál lyda. Ordsmidur. Manns unadsemd. Huggun mans. Huggun-manna. Eydir mannrauna. Firder nauda. Hamratekia. mynd Íllsku. mest slægd.

Naud. Þya-þrá. þúngur kostur. votsamlegt Verk. Nijdfastur hram. þúngur madur á sunde. þrælaþiónusta. siúkur madur. Harmur haurda. Hrigdasaugur. kyrleyse.

Os – Alldingötur. AsgardJöfur. Valhallar Víser. Svanagrund. Skiparaun. Bót eggia. Svanadvöl. Glaumúnga grund. Krokur. Laxaláð. Lijdafæda. Alftalón. Fiskadubl. upphafflóds. Kópakoma.

Plástur. Beniaborg. Bót sára. Mykíng sara. Smirsl sára. Aloe. Lækning meina. Fró rauna. Vallt lijf. Sæmdarbæn. Bate. Hugur. Morgna svide.

Reid. Sitiande Sæla. snúdug För. Jors erfide. Hestaspreingur. Raun Hesta. Þruma. skiótferd. Gaman gotna. Osk. Alinn Hestur. Slæmur búnadur. Ard. Sæmd seggia. þijrfta landa.

Sól – Skyiaskiölldur. Raudull. Hverfandahvel. Landaskiár. Gluggi landa. Loptsdúfa. Glod lopts. Ofbyrta. Matemanna. Morgnaliós. Sæmder lijda. Hiólahaukur.

Tÿr. – Sá einhendi Ás. Ulfsleider. Balldursbroder. Úlfstafn. Rietter Úlfs. lettastur látur. Freysbarmi. laufe. Slag. Fæda Freys. *Freysfilla. gáta.

Úr. – Skyagrátur. Skade þerrers. Hyrdershatur. Þerrabann. underrót Svella. Hlyrnistar. Álát jardar. Hláka. Dymvidris-dropar. Austurbára. Kornabate. Dryckur manna. Skálldafundur.

Ýr – Bendur boge. Seinum fleiter. Handuraun. Skotmálsör. *Pijla á streing. midmanna. Æfibann. Stutt fiör. Angur. Dygd. litkun.

Þuss – Kvennakvöl. Klettajbúe. Oddrúnar ver. Hárrúmur. Hártyr. Hardbake. *Biargbite. Flagdafader. Þundarbróder. Klettakongur. Þrautasmidur. Urner. Gape grijms.

Æ – Skipabyr. Sifiar hríngur. Eydir manna. Sifiarrein. Mutur. Barntál lijda. laxalaug. Berlíngslögur. Þóttur vid bál.

3) Также упоминаются «четырехчастные руны»: fuþork/hnias/tbmly/pægd (ср. «Рунологию» Йоуна Оулафс-сона из Грюнна-вика (AM 413 fol.) и «Серую кожу» с Востока Исландии: о ней см. «Графическую магию исландцев» (2009): с. 12, 74). Еще в третьей вставке речь идет о «трехчастных рунах» (þrídeilur), «рунах для хлопков» (klapp-rúnir) и о «литерах нищего-бродяги» (Stafkarlaletur). (Иллюстрации этих рун и сопроводительный текст даны в книге Л. Кораблева «Рунология» Йоуна Оулафс-сона из Грюнна-вика. Исландские трактаты XVII века» (2005).)

4) Приведено изображение «Рун победы» (Sigrúner)

sigrunir Исландская рукопись Nks. 1878 a, 4to.

Эта статья составлена по материалам и исследованиям, предоставленным автору профессором Эйнаром Г. Пьетурссоном (Исландия) (Einar G. Pétursson).

The Analysis of a Variant of the Icelandic Rune Poem from
the MS Nks 1878a, 4to (pp. 299 — 303)

Leonid Korablev
(Russia) 2010

In this version of the Icelandic Rune Poem occurs the very ancient material as well as rather the modern one. It is the very curious mixture. For example:

Rune-name BIARKAN (N2) here appears to be in the genuine Icelandic form “avöxtr birkisins” (cf. Björn Halldórsson “Grasnytjar”, (2nd ed. 1983), p 19, the Icelandic herbal of 18th cent: “Avøxtr birkisins, sem heitir BJARKAN, hefir mjög samandragandi krapt… ”. So the Icelandic rune-name “bjarkan” means not just “a birch”, but “fruit of a birch”), because in this poem (Nks 1878 a, 4to) among other runic kennings for “Bjarkan” (N2) occurs “frioga trianna”;

Rune-name for “H” (N7) is not in a usual mysterious form Hagall, but exactly in the form HAGL meaning just “hail”;

LAUGUR (N10) – probably here we see a mixture of the old rune-name for “L” (Lögur “sea, water”) with the genuine/original Icelandic form meaning “hot spring” (LAUG) (?): cf. runic kennings “Vatn heitt” and “Heitur brunnur”;

Under an entry for OS (N13) the first three runic kennings in this list belong properly to the rune-name ÁSS “one of the heathen gods, an as (probably Odin)” – “Alldingötur, AsgardJöfur, Valhallar Víser” and only after (these three ones) begins the list of runic kennings for OS “estuary, river-mouth; fiord”: cf. “Svanagrund, Skiparaun”, etc. And also here, in this Rune Poem, is another rune-name for “A” ÁR (N1) in its classic meaning “(fruitful) year; (good) season”: cf. AR (N1) — “gott Sumar, algróinn Akur, Jardargrodi” (about a difficulty with rune-names Ár/Áss/Óss see R.I. Page, Þorgunnur Snædal, L. Korablev; AM 413 fol. bls. 125-126, Jón Samsonarson “Ljóðmál” (2002), bls. 29);

In the list of runic kennings for REID (N15) occur not only usual kennings meaning “riding a horse” (“Sitiande Sæla” etc.), but also a very ancient meaning of the rune-name “thunder” (cf. “Þruma” in the list), which is connected with the Thunder-god Thor (cf. an Icelandic word “reið” “thunder”: originally “a thundering chariot/waggon of Thor”) (cf. M. W. Gejel/S. Ottman “Kettil Runske…” (1997): p. 18 “reid, vagn… Thors vagn”; S. Flowers “The Galdrabók” (1989), p. 67);

ÝR (N19) – here in addition to classical “bendur boge” occur more puzzling kennings, not all of which seem to mean “bow (of yew)”;

Æ (N21) – in other variants of the Icelandic Rune Poem (AM 687d 4to, AM 413 fol., Jón Daðason’s “Gandreið”, etc.) its usual rune-name is “æsa, æsingur”. Here it is given without any definite name;

ÞUSS (N20) – here is not any hint on “demonic” connection of this word, but only kennings in a pure pagan skaldic tradition. The most curious is the runic kenning “Gape grijms”, which also occurs in some mysterious runic MSS preserved by a Swedish scholar Petter Rudebeck, among other similar runic kennings (see “Småländska Antiqviteter” av Petter Rudebeck (1997), p. 490 “gape gríms” (þ), p. 507 “gapi grims” (y?) ).

My cordial thanks for drawing my attention to this variant of the Icelandic Rune Poem are due to Professor Einar Gunnar Pétursson (Iceland) (see his excellent article“Hvenær týndist kverið úr Konungsbók Eddukvæða?” (“Gripla VI”, 1984), p. 280), who also provided me with photocopies of this Poem and to Stefan Ottman (Sweden), who provided me with photocopies of P. Rudebeck’s runic MSS.

A COMPARISSON OF THE NKS 1878A, 4TO
WITH THE AM 413 FOL., ETC.

[1] AR:
“Salasender”, in AM 413 fol., (p. 138) – “Saara-sendir”;

[2] BJARKAN:
“frioga trianna”, in AM 413 fol. (pp. 130-131) – “frioofgún Trjaanna”;
“Blaudin vidur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 138) – “Blödin vidar”;
“Manna ávöxtur”, in AM 413 fol. – “manns aavöxtúr”.

[3] STÚNGINN TYR:
Hlyre úlfs skotinn” (unique!);
“drepinn madur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 131) – “wlfs drepinn madur”;
“braudur brotinn”, in AM 413 fol. – “brandr brotinn”;
“sæfdur Þórsbrodir” (?) “særður” (?).

[4] STÚNGINN ÝS:
“Sifiardún geinginn”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 131) – “Sjaavar geinginn”, “Sjaawadwn særðr” (p.139) & “Sjaawadwn særðr trodinn” (AM 413 fol., p. 139 under YYR);
“jft gliáliós”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 131) — “ÿfdr gliáliós”;
Kómu-vöndur” (unique!),
uppborne kiærleike” (unique!);
“Styrkur og neid” – is given under “Д;
Hnettsla” (unique!),
“Þil vatna reint”, in AM 413 fol. – “Þil vatna rýmt”;
*”Siohliód”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 131) – “Sia-hljood”.

[5] FE:
Fofnisbed” (unique!);
*“Tiuiatala”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “auratala”(?);
“áer vetrar”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “air vetrar”.

[6] STÚNGINN KAUN:
Kyle knúd”, in AM 413 fol (p. 151) – “boolgit kyyle”;
*”Grædisstofn stirdur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “Maðr stýrðr”;
Víjg” (unique!);
Hesta-högg” (unique!);
“Jöl munns i naudum”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “Bölmanns ï nauðúm”;
“Hneoker”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “Hneckir”;
Hrým” (unique!).

[7] HAGL, in AM 413 fol. (pp. 132, 137) — HAGALL:
“Hlyrners syndur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “Hlyrnirs sindur”;
“Hlyrnes-þruma”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Hlyrnis-þruma”;
“Spíta”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “himna spÿta”.

[8] ÍS:
“Hrym sæng-vatna”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “sæng-vatna”.

[9] KAUN:
stórt fall” (unique!);
Fuglafár” (unique!);
“Sess” (unique!);
“Fákiæti fyrda”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “fá-kjæti fyrda”;
“Högnadottir”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Hilldur Högnadottir”.

[10] LAUGUR, in AM 413 fol. (pp. 132, 138) – LÖGR:
“Vellandi unnur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 132) – “vellandi vimr”;
Kalk dýra” (unique!);
Klute”, cf. AM 413 fol. (p. 138) “Cwt fiskanna”?, “Klwta Spilltr” is given under “K”;
Fiskafolld” (unique!);
Ran” (unique!);
“Humarfrón”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 133) – “Humrafroon”;
“Flestra-fiska-völlur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) “Flestra-fiska… “;
“Durnisdráttur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) commented that “Durnir” is a “Jötúns heite”;
Færa” (unique!).

[11] MADUR:
“Skipa skreitir”, in AM 413 (p. 133) – “Skipa skreytir”;
Huggun-manna” (unique?);
Hamratekia”, in AM 413 fol. (p.133) — “harmatekja”, (ibid., p. 151) “harma tekiú” is given under “N”;
“Mest slægd”, in AM 413 fol. “slægð” is given under “G”.

[12] NAUD:
“Nijdfastur hram”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 133) – “Nijdfastur Herra”;
“þúngur madur á sundue”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “mooðr madur á sunde”;
Harmur haurda” (unique!);
“Hrigdasaugur”, in AM 413 fol.(ibid.) – “Hrygda sögur”;
kyrleyse”, cf. AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Býr-leýse”?.

[13] OS:
“Alldingötur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 133) – “Alldingaútr”;
“AsgardJöfur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Asgardsjöfurr”;
Skiparaun” (unique!);
Bót eggia” (unique!);
“Krokur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) — “krookr kaara, beckja”;
Laxaláð”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Laxa-land, lynd”;
Fiskadubl” (unique!).

[14] PLÁSTUR:
“Beniaborg”, in AM 413 (p. 133) — “beniabjörg”;
Hugur” (unique!).

[15] REID:
“snúdug För”, in AM 413 fol. (p.133) – “snúdig för”;
Þruma”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Hesta þruma”;
“Slæmur búnadur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – just “búnadur”;
Ard” (unique!);
þijrfta landa” (unique!).

[16] SÓL:
“Raudull”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – “skijnandi raudull”;
“Glod lopts”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Glod lopta”;
“Sæmder lijda”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Sæmd lijda”;
“Hiólahaukur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Hiólahaukr”.

[17] TŸR:
“Ulfsleider”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – “Ulfsleifer”;
lettastur látur” (unique!);
Fæda Freys”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – “fæda Fenris wlfs”;
*”Freysfilla” (unique!).

[18] ÚR:
“Skade þerrers”, in AM 687d, 4to — “skára þverrir” (R.I. Page (1999), p. 27), in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – “Skade þerrirs”;
“Hyrdershatur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Hyrdeshatr”;
Austurbára”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Aúki-Baarú”.

[19] ÝR:
“Bendur boge”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – “Bendr boge”;
“Seinum fleiter”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “fiifú fleiter”;
“Handuraun”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Handaraun”;
*”Pijla á streing”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) — “Þijla á streing”;
“Dygd”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Manna dygd”;
Litkun” (unique!).

[20] ÞUSS, in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – ÞÚRS:
“Klettajbúe”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 134) – “Klettabúe”;
“Hárrúmur”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Hárr ramur”;
*”Biargbite”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – just “Bjarg”;
“Þrautasmidur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 135) – “Þrautasmidr”;
Gape grijms”, in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Gapi geyms”, (ibid., p. 136) – “gríms ert[”j]ng” (a Latin translation by Jón Ólafsson úr Grunnavík – “grimneri irritator” ).

[21] Æ, in AM 413 fol. (p. 135) — ÆSA:
“Skipabýr” is given under “L”;
Mutur” (unique!);
Barnatál lijda” (unique!);
“Berlíngslögur”, in AM 413 fol. (p. 135) – “Berlínglögur”;
“Þóttur vid bál” , in AM 413 fol. (ibid.) – “Þóttr vid bál”;

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